Venous Insufficiency (Varicose Veins)

Venous insufficiency is the inability or difficulty of the leg veins to return blood back to the heart.

 Varicose Vein Physiology


As the blood pools in the leg it leads to heaviness and swelling at the end of the day and over time it may gradually progress to spider veins, varicose veins and even skin discoloration and ulcers at advanced stages.

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible through the skin and may appear as blue or purple twisted, knot-like cords on the leg.

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vascular health

Vascular Surgeon

Dr. Efthymios (Makis) Avgerinos is a Vascular Surgeon, Associate Professor of Surgery in the Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in USA.


Scientific Editing

Efthymios D. Avgerinos, MD, PhD, FEBVS
Associate Professor of Surgery
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh
Medical Center Pennsylvania, USA